flour, add some water, with some yeast and a little salt. One would hardly think this combination would

yield such a lip smacking treat. Yet mixed, kneaded, proofed and then baked to a golden brown can result in

just that. The result: crispy crust, soft center blanketed with creamy butter, dipped in a silky sauce. You

can almost taste it. Each part of the world yields its its own versions.


Here we will look at:

Breakfast breads

Bigas and starters

5 stages of Mixing Dough

5 steps in making a yeast bread

some standard breads


Breakfast Breads

Cinnamon Bread/ Cinnamon Bread French Toast

Cinnamon Rolls

Dough nuts


Bread and Banana Bread French Toast

Blueberry muffins





White bread


Sour Dough



Specialty bread




Corn bread


Irish soda bread

Lavash bread


Pita bread


Hot Dog Rolls

Pizza Dough



Sponge, Bigas and Starters Sponge (poolish) and Starter are the same, equal parts flour and water blended

with 1% yeast and allowed to ferment for 3 – 15 hours. The ratios can change based on the recipe. The higher

the ratio of water to flour makes the yeast multiply faster. These are added during the mixing process at the



Sour Dough Starter (wheat, whole wheat, rye, durum)

Day 1 (initial starter)

4 oz. Water

½ cup flour

1.mix these two ingredients together, cover and let stand at room

temperature for 24 hours.

2.mix and let stand another 24 hours


Day 3 (first feeding)

½ cup initial starter

4 oz. water

½ cup flour

1.mix original starter, then remove ½cup of starter and combine water from this first

feeding, discard remainder.

2.Blend in first feeding flour, mix and let stand for 24 hours at room temp. around 75


Day 4 (2nd feeding)

1 cup starter from first feeding

4 oz. Water

½ cup flour

1.mix first feeding starter, then remove 1 cup of starter and combine water from this

2nd feeding, discard remainder.

2.Blend in 2nd feeding flour, mix and let stand for 24 hours

Day 5 (3rd feeding)

½ cup 2nd feeding starter

8 oz. Water

12 oz. Flour (for rye starter same accept only 8 oz. Rye added here)

1.combine 2nd feeding starter with water, then combine flour

2.let rest for about 4 hours, then use with bread dough recipe


2 cups flour

2 cups water

Pinch instant dry yeast

1.mix together all ingredients, cover let ferment at about 75 degrees for 10 – 15 hours, should rise

and begin falling, bubbly and frothy.


Biga an aged dough, consisting of 50 – 60 % water and 1/3 to ½ oz. Yeast, fermented 18 – 24

hours. A biga is heartier and works well with hearty breads, needs to be loosened with

liquid from final product recipe in order to facilitate incorporating it. These are added

during the mixing process at the beginning


2 cups bread flour

1 cup water

pinch dry active yeast

1. mix together until completely combined, cover let stand at room temperature 75 degrees for 18 – 24

hours, should begin to fall, should be bubbly and airy


Pate fermentee – old dough, is a piece of lean dough that has been wrapped and retarded overnight and then

incorporated with a dough recipe to impart some “sour” flavor characteristics. These are added

during the mixing process at the beginning

5 Stages of Mixing Dough

Cleanup – moderate speed, rough texture, is coming together

Pickup – blended ingredients, on low until just combined

Development – gluten elasticity begins to develop, medium speed

Final Development – dough comes off bowl clean, smooth

Knead dough – remove dough from bowl onto lightly floured surface, stretch and fold into the

center of the dough each corner pushing into the center, continue for 5 minutes. This

should yield a “window” that you can see light through, this shows proper gluten

development. You should have a smooth finish for the start of your bulk

fermentation process.


Steps in making a yeast dough:

Conditions for proofing dough. The warmest part of the kitchen, usually near a warm

stove. Ideal conditions are 75 - 100 degrees, with 80% humidity, or you can cover

dough with a clean cloth. If conditions aren't the ideal it can stunt the rising.


5 stages of mixing dough – listed above


Bulk fermentation – used when adding yeast directly into recipe, allow to rest for 1 hour or

doubled in size, covered, then uncover and punch dough and release gases, turn onto

lightly floured surface.


Pre shape dough – cut to size using a dough divider of the product you are making, if you are

making dinner rolls at 1oz. now you will cut them, a 16 oz. loaf of bread, shape, cover

and let rise, keep organized so you know what order to work with your products.


Table Rest – gives the dough a chance to regroup after the cutting and shaping process. Keep

covered about 60 minutes, roll over.


Shape – now you want to get the product to its final shape, place on/in baking vessel, if you will

be using a wash, such as egg, water, milk or cream, butter or oil now is the time to do

it. If the dough requires scoring or marking now would be the time to do this.


Final fermentation – keep covered during this process to prevent a skin from forming, should be

about 60 minutes or until completely doubled for smaller rolls, and 80 – 90% doubled

if a large loaf. A large loaf will rise more in the oven because of longer cooking time

where as a smaller roll will cook rapidly, not allowing further rise. Bake - lean doughs

are baked at high heats of 400 - 450, while rich doughs are baked at lower

temperatures of 350 - 375. Breads are best cooled on wire racks, which prevents

moisture from condensing on crust.


Note: rich doughs are ones that have higher fat, sugars, eggs. Caramelization occurs at lower

temperatures. Ex. Brioche, cinnamon rolls. Lean doughs caramelize at higher

temperatures, French bread, Italian bread.