Sauces

Sauces are like the veil of a bride. They lay waiting, picturesque yet mysterious, to unveil the

beauty of what lies beneath. They become part of that bride for that time,

complimenting the beauty of the dish. The sauce is probably more important to a

dish than the veil, though. The important properties of a sauce are: viscosity

(thickness), texture (smooth, coarse,chunky), color, luster (the ability to reflect

light, opacity (ability to see through).

 

Sauces are derived from 4 mother sauces fom the french, these sauce are a foundation that we

build on:

Veloute - is a stock thickened with a roux. So you could have a basic beef, veal,

chicken, fish, lobster, vegetable veloutes.

Bechamel - seasoned milk/cream that is thickened

Espagnole - seasoned thickened veal stock , with tomato product

Demi-glace - is 50% espagnole, 50%veal stock reduced by 1/2

Although not a mother sauce it is important to speak about Tomato sauce, pan sauces/gravy

later in this section. You can go to Stocks, and fumes for information about them.

 

Well we know that a sauce comsists of some liquid, usually a stock and it has some

consistancy to it. The conistancy is developed through thickening. The most

common thickener is roux.

 

Roux mixture- cooked or raw, is made up of 50% flour/50% fat (usually

butter). The fat is melted and the flour combined, making a

dough, or paste like material.

 

Cooked roux - there are 3 kinds: white, blond, brown

 

White roux - is the roux mixture heated, and stirred until the

mixture gets a slightly nutty aroma,

and the color is still yellowish

 

Blond roux - is again the roux mixture, that is

cooked for a couple minutes longer

than the white roux

 

Brown roux - is finally the roux mixture cooked slowly over a

long period of time to develop a dark

roux, not burned, this is used in

gumbo.

 

Raw roux - a raw roux isn't cooked at all, merely combined

with the fat and incorporated into the stock. A raw

roux doesn't have a nutty flavor, will resemble the

flavor of a steamed dumpling more. Best practice

is to cook your roux.

 

It is best to add your roux, if it is hot, to a cooler liquid and whisk it

together. Or add your hot stock to a roux that is cooler. An

immersion hand blender which has a handle with blender

type blades on a stem, can be used to unite the stock with the

roux, more effectively than a whisk. These are available for as

little as $25 in your kitchen appliance center.

 

How much do I use?

Heavy viscosity would be 12% roux to volume of stock

Ex. 128oz. stock X 12% = 15.36 oz.

Medium viscosity would be 10% roux to volume of stock

Ex. 128 oz. stock X 10% = 12.8 oz. roux.

Thinner viscosity would be 8% roux to volume of stock

Ex. 128 oz. stock X 8% = 10.24 oz. roux

 

Veloute: mother sauce

32 oz of stock

4 oz. white roux

s & p

1. heat stock, whisk roux, season

 

See the recipes below for variations of veloutes

 

Chicken Veloute: with the addition of the following

cream, thyme, savory, sage = supreme sauce

sauteed mushrooms, cream, s & p = forestiere sauce

sherry, julienne sauteed vegetables, s & p = primavera

sauce

 

Veal Veloute: with the addition of the following

horseradish, lemon juice, sugar = polonaise sauce

marsala wine, mushrooms, proscuitto or ham =

marsala sauce

Lobster Veloute: with the addition of the following

sherry, minced lobster, s & p = lobster sauce

 

Fish Veloute: with the addition of the following

shallots, cream, lemon juice, herbs, s & p

= bercy blanche

Beef Veloute: with the addition of the following

burgundy wine, sliced mushrooms, s & p =

bourgeoning sauce

caramelized onion, sherry, s & p =

lyonnaise sauce

Bechamel sauce: mother sauce

16 oz. milk heat slowly (never boil milk)

16oz. light cream, 1/2 and 1/2 or heavy cream heat

slowly

1 onion cut in 1/2 and pierced with cloves, this is

called a onion cloute (use one half only)

s & p to taste

1/2 tsp. ginger

4 oz. white roux

Thicken dairy with roux, season and remove onion

cloute

 

Variations: reduce 1 cup of white wine, add to stock.

reduce wine first

Derivatives of Bechamel: with the addition of the following

1 cup reduced by 1/2 Heavy cream, and a hint of

lemon, to 1 pt. of bechamel = cream sauce

swiss cheese, and parmesan = mornay

romano cheese, roasted garlic, s & p = alfredo

1 cup reduced by 1/2 Heavy cream, and a hint of

saffron to 1 pt. bechamel = saffron cream

with the addition of Xtra sharp cheddar, dry mustard,

hint of roasted garlic, s & p =

Mac, and cheese sauce

sauteed julienne vegetables, parmesan cheese, roasted

garlic s & p = creamy primavera

Espagnole Sauce: mother sauces

1/2 gallon veal stock

4.5 oz. blond roux

6 oz. diced bacon

11 oz. diced mirepoix (carrot, celery, onion)

1/2 tsp. thyme 2 bay leaves parsley stems up to 1/2

bunch

8 oz. tomato puree

 

1. brown bacon, and diced mirepoix,

2. heat veal stock and thicken with roux,

3. Add hot thickened stock to bacon and mirepoix.

4. Bring to a boil, reduce to simmer, reduce by 1/2

5. strain

 

Variations: 3oz. reduced wine vinegar, 1 T. shallots, 1 1/4 cups

espagnole sauce, 2 T. tomato puree, 1 T. worcershire

sauce,cayenne pepper, strain = diable sauce

 

 

Demi Glace: mother sauce

1 quart brown veal stock or beef stock

1 quart espagnole

1/2 tsp. thyme

2 bay leaves parsley stems

2 oz. madeira

 

1. combine ingredients, bring to a boil, reduce to

simmer

2. reduce volume by 1/2, skim anything that floats to

the surface.

3. sauce should be shiny and translucent, strain, cool.

 

Variations:

1.5 T. shallots, 4 oz. red bordeaux, 2 bay leaves,

pepper, demi, 1 T. lemon juice = bordelaise sauce

 

1 - 2 T. finely chopped onion, 1/2 cup white wine

reduce, 1 cup demi. 1 tsp. dry mustard = sauce robert

Tomato Sauce:

4 T. diced carrot

4 T. diced onion

2 oz. Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO)

3 lbs. of fresh tomatoes, seeded/cut in quarters and

pressed

2 T. clover honey

1 T. minced garlic

1/2 oz. fresh basil cut into ribbons

1 cup red wine

parsley and thyme stems

1 cup chicken stock

1. sautee carrots, onions, tomato, garlic. Add stock

2. add basil, wine, honey, stems. cook on low for 2

hours.

3. for smooth, blend with immersion blender.

 

Variations: sautee any sausage, pork, bacon, veal, chicken,beef or

combination in initial step of this recipe

 

Variations of Tomato:

diced pepper, onion, 1 cup red wine, ground veal,

pork, beef,tomato sauce = bolognese sauce

grilled fennel bulb, 1 cup chix. stock, 1 T. olive oil, 4

T. minced onion, tomato sauce = tomato

fennel

2 oz. capers, 1 oz. caper juice, 2 oz. sliced black or

green olives, tomato sauce = putanesca

Pan sauce/Gravy: essentially a pan gravy is a veloute, here is

one way to go about it for chicken, turkey,

beef, lamb.

1. remove roasted meat item from pan,

2. make roux by whisking in flour into the fat/drippings

on the bottom of your roasting pan, cook

just like making roux.

3. when roux is cooked add, stock, appropriate: beef,

veal, chicken, turkey, lamb, or vegetable

stock from other vegetables that have been

cooked.

4. season, salt and pepper for all for poultry (thyme,

sage, coriander, white wine), lamb (mint,

rosemary, thyme, red wine), beef (rosemary,

thyme, pepper, red wine)

5. strain, (if you don't have a strainer you don't need to)

 

Picatta Sauce:

16 oz. chicken stock

1 T. EVOO

2 oz. chardonnay

1 tsp. minced garlic

1 - 2 oz. lemon juice

1 T. capers

2 oz. roux

1 T. butter

1 tsp. chopped parsley

1. sautee garlic, deglaze with wine simmer 3 minute,

add chicken stock

2. BTB, thicken with roux, add capers, parsley

3. reduce to simmer, whisk in butter

4. spoon over: Chicken, Veal, shrimp etc.

Marsala Sauce:

16 oz. chicken stock

1 T. EVOO

4 oz. marsala

1 tsp. minced garlic

4 oz. roux

1 T. butter

1 tsp. chopped parsley

4 oz. sliced mushrooms

1. sautee mushrooms, garlic, deglaze with marsala wine

simmer 3 minutes, add chicken stock

2. BTB, thicken with roux

3. reduce to simmer, add parsley, whisk in butter

4. spoon over: Chicken, Veal, etc.

 

Scampi Sauce:

16 oz. chicken stock

1 T. EVOO

2 oz. chardonnay

1 tsp. minced garlic

1 - 2 oz. lemon juice

2 oz. roux

1 T. butter

1 tsp. chopped parsley

1. sautee garlic, deglaze with wine simmer 3 minute,

add chicken stock

2. BTB, thicken with roux, add capers, parsley

3. reduce to simmer, whisk in butter

4. spoon over: Chicken, Veal, shrimp etc.